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Gobierno islandés medieval

Gobierno islandés medieval


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El gobierno islandés de la Alta Edad Media, o la Islandia vikinga, se ha denominado una forma incipiente de democracia o parlamentarismo democrático, sin embargo, el sistema en realidad no se parecía en nada a sus homólogos europeos, ya fueran medievales o contemporáneos. La historiografía prefiere el término "estado libre". Como sugiere el nombre, se refiere a una entidad política organizada libremente, con algunos elementos de estadidad pero no del todo un estado. Por el contrario, los colonos de Islandia, los héroes del saga La literatura, desde muchos puntos de vista creó una sociedad sin estado. Tenían un sistema judicial bien definido y un consejo de legisladores (lögrétta), pero sin rey ni nadie que ponga en práctica las decisiones judiciales. Había diferencias entre jefes y plebeyos, pero no tan grandes como en muchos otros lugares. Los caciques tenían poco poder ejecutivo, y al menos en los siglos X y XI no estaban organizados jerárquicamente. Los colonos abandonaron Noruega y otras regiones para empezar de cero y organizar su mundo como en ningún otro lugar de Europa.

Jefes

Los colonos (landnámnsmenn en nórdico antiguo) vinieron con tradiciones políticas del continente, y muchas de ellas provenían de la misma clase social. Islandia abandonó la capa aristocrática de la sociedad vikinga continental y, en general, la jerarquía de señores de la guerra, condes, hombres libres y hombres libres parciales. Islandia llegó a ser una sociedad de agricultores terratenientes que no estaban tan entusiasmados con las élites y sus roles. De hecho, podría haber sido lo que los ahuyentó en primer lugar. Buscaban evitar la concentración de poder en ciertos grupos y que cada uno tuviera una parte del control sobre los demás. Jefesgóðar en nórdico antiguo) se benefició de una mayor autoridad, pero el papel era temporal y no territorial. Dependía de cuántos seguidores tuvieran, si ofrecían apoyo en las disputas, si podían hacer cumplir la ley y si tenían suficiente prestigio. Mientras que en Escandinavia los agricultores perdieron los derechos a la creciente autoridad de los reyes y otros líderes, los islandeses rechazaron un estado centralizado. En palabras de Jesse Byock, representa "un ejemplo de un patrón autolimitante de formación del Estado" (Islandia de la era vikinga, 66), lo que significa que no querían evolucionar sino volver a formas de convivencia más sencillas.

Los agricultores podían cambiar sus lealtades de un cacique a otro, se evitaba la concentración de poder y la autoridad era un concepto bastante vago.

Los hombres influyentes locales pueden considerarse líderes, pero solo a pequeña escala. Algunos caciques pero también agricultores (bændr en nórdico antiguo) tenía más riqueza y prestigio que otros, por lo que era similar a las sociedades clasificadas. Los caciques podían tener esclavos, arrendatarios o jornaleros, sin embargo, la esclavitud desapareció en el siglo XI. Goðar típicamente compitieron no solo por la riqueza y el estatus, sino también por los seguidores (cosa en nórdico antiguo), que fueron muy importantes para afirmar el dominio. Ellos arbitraron en disputas, lo cual era un negocio arriesgado que podía hacer que lo mataran, pero tal vez valiera la pena el riesgo, dados los beneficios económicos. Transfirieron propiedades, otorgaron préstamos a los agricultores y aumentaron su prestigio ofreciendo obsequios, práctica que consolidó alianzas. Celebraron fiestas cuidadosamente planificadas, especialmente en la época de la cosecha, donde mostraron su generosidad e importancia.

Parece que los caciques adquirieron muchos menos ingresos de los que cabría esperar, debido a la economía relativamente simple y a la escasez de recursos. Una fuente principal de riqueza, además de alquilar tierras o ganado, fue intervenir y resolver una disputa. Técnicamente, los agricultores también podían hacer esto, pero los caciques estaban más calificados porque sabían más de la ley. Sin embargo, las barreras sociales podrían superarse, ya que los agricultores podrían convertirse goðar, y el rango dependía de la ley y la convención. Los agricultores podían cambiar sus lealtades de un cacique a otro, se evitaba la concentración de poder y la autoridad era un concepto bastante vago. Esta situación cambiaría en el siglo XIII, una vez que los pequeños grupos ganaran más poder, estimulados por la Iglesia medieval entre otros factores.

Sociedad sin Estado

La economía era simple, la unidad principal era la granja autosuficiente, dependiente del pastoreo, la caza y la recolección. No había pueblos y, a veces, los conflictos se resolvían mediante peleas. ¿Fueron los islandeses incapaces de fundar un estado? Lo más probable es que no tuvieran interés. Los escandinavos del siglo X eran bastante emprendedores; conquistaron y asentaron partes de Inglaterra y establecieron rutas comerciales hasta el Imperio Bizantino. Cuando los colonos llegaron a Islandia, debemos asumir que llevaban consigo una parte importante del código social de las comunidades escandinavas. Esto se puede ver en las sofisticadas leyes que tratan de la propiedad y la propiedad, semillas de descontento y competencia fuertemente explotadas en la literatura medieval. sagas.

La sociedad de Islandia era, por otro lado, diferente a las tribales con señores de la guerra y tierras, caracterizadas por el poder establecido en un área determinada. Los islandeses renunciaron a parte de la cultura vikinga, la de la destreza militar, las conquistas y la realeza, optando por el consenso. Los agricultores estuvieron de acuerdo en el hecho de que ningún cacique debería dominar y convertirse en un señor supremo. Su organización se basó en relaciones sociales que reemplazaron a la estadidad. Por soñador que parezca, no estuvo exento de graves caídas. Los intrincados arreglos sociales formados por el parentesco, las alianzas o las amistades podrían poner límites a los conflictos pero no evitar la violencia. Sagas relatar casos en los que las disputas se intensificaron hasta el punto de no retorno y resultaron mortales.

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Ley y Orden

Islandia era una sociedad de inmigrantes libres que luchaban por los escasos recursos. Emigraron en un momento en que los reyes que buscaban expandir su poder amenazaban los derechos de los campesinos comunes. Como tal, es comprensible que se separaran de la sociedad matriz y no tuvieran interés en construir el mismo sistema. En el siglo IX, la isla parecía atractiva porque en otras partes de Europa gobernantes como Alfredo el Grande (r. 871-899) en Inglaterra lideraban campañas contra los invasores vikingos. En Noruega, de donde procedían la mayoría de los colonos, el rey Harald Fairhair (hárfagri, r. C. 872-933) desde el sureste buscaron controlar toda la región y, junto con los condes de carga de Trondelag en el norte, los agricultores subyugados y los líderes militares locales llamados hersar.

El autor islandés Snorri Sturluson escribe en el siglo XIII que la tiranía del rey Harald ahuyentó a la gente. Si bien Snorri pudo haber exagerado, es parte de un mito nacional: el rechazo de los arreglos jerárquicos y el establecimiento de un parlamento primitivo llamado Althing.

El rey Haraldr reclamó la posesión de todas las tierras dondequiera que obtuviera poder e hizo que cada agricultor, poderoso o no, le pagara un impuesto por la tierra. Nombró un jarl en cada fylki [provincia] que emitiría juicios legales y cobraría las multas y el impuesto territorial; el jarl se quedaría con un tercio del impuesto para su comida y sus gastos de manutención. Cada jarl tendría cuatro o más hersar debajo de él, y cada uno de los últimos tendría un ingreso de veinte marcos. Cada jarl proporcionaría al ejército del rey sesenta soldados y cada suir proporcionaría veinte hombres. (Heimskringla ch. 6, tr. Jesse Byock, 54 años).

Cuando la gente llegó por primera vez a Islandia, solo encontraron algunos monjes irlandeses que luego se fueron. Los primeros se llevaron grandes extensiones de tierra, lo que provocó una disputa con los recién llegados posteriores. los Landnámabok, o Libro de Asentamientos, nos dice que se le pidió al rey Harald que interviniera y decidió que nadie debería poseer un área más grande de la que podría transportar fuego en un día. En las generaciones siguientes, las tierras se dividieron entre muchas pequeñas granjas, por lo que nadie podía reclamar una autoridad real. La geografía tampoco fomentó un sistema vasallo, por lo que pronto desaparecieron los lazos de dependencia en favor de la propiedad privada. La falta de amenazas externas también desalentó la formación de redes defensivas dominadas por señores. Sin embargo, a medida que la población aumentó, la necesidad de una ley común se hizo bastante clara.

Asambleas y Tribunales

Se fundó la asamblea común, el Althing. Según el historiador Ari the Learned en Islendigabók, o El Libro de los islandeses, un hombre llamado Úlfljótr fue en la década de 920 a Noruega para adaptar las leyes de los noruegos occidentales de la asamblea de Gula a los requisitos islandeses, aclarar cuestiones legales y traer de vuelta un código legal. Debido a la falta de similitud con Grágás, La ley de la gallina gris usada en el siglo XIII pero probablemente conservando algunas leyes más antiguas, la historia de Ari no es muy convincente. De cualquier manera, se formó una reunión y 39 hombres se convirtieron en góðar, basado en su parentesco y prestigio local. Este término podría significar jefe-sacerdote, y como no había un sacerdocio reconocido, probablemente realizaban sacrificios oficiales. Los jefes necesarios para mantener el local cosas (asambleas), y para el siglo X, probablemente había 13 de estos.

Todos los jefes y sus cosa reunidos en la asamblea de verano, el Althing, en Thingvöllr (llanura) en el suroeste. Entonces fue el consejo de la ley (lögrétta en nórdico antiguo) se reunieron, para aprobar o revisar leyes. El tribunal también representó a Islandia en asuntos exteriores. Todo era público, con gente sentada en bancos en tres círculos. Después de la conversión al cristianismo, se construyó una pequeña iglesia en el sitio, además de que la gente vivía en tiendas de campaña o casetas de césped. No hubo funcionarios excepto el presidente de la ley (lögsögumaðr), con un plazo de tres años. Como sugiere el nombre, su tarea principal era recitar de memoria un tercio de las leyes y, a pesar de su prestigio, la función no tenía ningún poder real que se le atribuyera. Hubo una posición más rotunda, pero nuevamente sin autoridad. El cacique supremoallherjargoði) se suponía que santificaría el Althing y limitaría las secciones de la asamblea. Esta oficina perteneció a los herederos de Thorsteinn, hijo de Ingólfr Arnarson, el primer colono de Islandia.

En la década de 960, tras un conflicto mortal, se introdujeron algunas reformas. Los casos de homicidio involuntario, que era de propiedad pública y diferente del asesinato, que era un crimen encubierto y vergonzoso, se llevarían al Althing en lugar de a la reunión local. Se llevaron a cabo tribunales de cuartos y la isla también se dividió en cuatro cuartos. Los barrios oeste, sur y este tenían tres reuniones lideradas por tres jefes cada uno, pero el norte recibió una adicional debido a su geografía. El posible desequilibrio en el Althing se solucionó agregando tres goði de cada uno de los otros barrios, lo que eleva el número total de jefes a 48. Los nuevos jefes, sin embargo, no tenían derecho a nombrar jueces. Esto trajo un sistema legal más centralizado, pero al mismo tiempo, el país permaneció bastante descentralizado, basado en la relación entre el cacique y el agricultor.

Otra reforma fue la asamblea de cuartos (fjórðungathing) que se ocupa de los asuntos de cada barrio, aunque se sabe poco de él y podría haber sido eclipsado por los tribunales de Althing. El panel de jueces seleccionados por sorteo tuvo que sopesar los hechos y emitir un veredicto. El proceso tenía reglas de procedimiento y estaba abierto al público. Cualquiera tenía acceso a los tribunales, sin embargo, el éxito dependía de su capacidad para atraer apoyo. Resolver una disputa requería negociaciones entre los jefes. En 1005, se agregó una quinta cancha (fimtardómr), para cuando los procesos llegaran a un punto muerto. La última reforma de este sistema fue la incorporación de los dos obispos al lögrétta.

El combate singular no fue tan frecuente y terminó siendo prohibido en el siglo XI.

Estos tribunales no solo eran la expresión del orden social aceptado, sino también un entorno adecuado para que los caciques presentaran sus ambiciones. Se reunieron con los agricultores para resolver disputas, negociar el poder, defender posiciones, reunir seguidores. Tales acciones fueron cruciales porque Islandia no tenía poder ejecutivo para poner en práctica el veredicto. La intrincada estructura de los tribunales con todos los procedimientos también significó otras formas de resolver. Las partes podrían llegar a un compromiso, y una de las partes incluso podría ofrecer sjálfdæmi, permitiendo que la otra parte establezca los términos del compromiso. Combate individual, o hólmgange, no fue tan frecuente y terminó siendo ilegalizada en el siglo XI. La negociación fue más atractiva.

Los ofendidos también podrían elegir la enemistad de sangre, un tema sagas gusta explorar. Sin embargo, buscar venganza dependía del apoyo de parientes y seguidores y, a menudo, se volvía confuso e interminable, por lo que las partes finalmente tuvieron que ir a los tribunales. La opción menos formal del arbitraje involucró a otras personas más neutrales. El arbitraje permitió a todos retirarse de situaciones peligrosas y disfrutar de un fallo aceptable.

A diferencia de Islandia, Noruega tenía un sistema que también tenía en cuenta las funciones y roles de los reyes, líderes militares o clérigos. Los islandeses en el siglo X desarrollaron los viejos derechos de los hombres libres en el mundo germánico sin todas las capas de la sociedad nórdica. Ampliaron la vieja idea de las reuniones locales de plebeyos y las utilizaron en lugar de los reinos piramidales más centralizados que crecían en el continente. Esto no quiere decir que la primera Islandia no estuviera clasificada, pero los jefes islandeses tenían mucha menos autoridad que sus homólogos escandinavos. Hasta el dominio de los señores supremos en el siglo XIII, no existía una barrera formal para la movilidad social. Sin embargo, un jefe necesitaba demostrar sus habilidades para mantener cosa alrededor. La amistad tenía que pagarse; algo que no siempre es fácil de hacer dada la escasa riqueza de la isla.

La disputa en Islandia también tenía sus características. A diferencia del continente, aquí era un asunto público. Los islandeses conservaron algunos de los valores militares que trajeron del continente; Podrían hacerse pasar por guerreros feroces, pero las batallas descritas en el sagas son de pequeña escala y se limitan a las familias. Enfrentados a un lugar más pacífico y, sin embargo, una naturaleza dura que necesitaba ser domesticada, los colonos pronto se dieron cuenta de la importancia de la moderación. A veces, los grupos pequeños pueden haber estado motivados para matar a algunos oponentes, pero las disputas nunca alcanzaron el nivel de luchas abiertas a gran escala. En el gran pueblo de Islandia, se podía ganar mucho honor y prestigio actuando como mediador o conteniendo un comportamiento problemático.

Una historia de leyes y disputas

En el Saga del pueblo de Eyri (Saga de Eyrbyggja), Arnkel goði decide tomar una propiedad a la que no tenía derecho, molestando a otros agricultores que se alían con un enemigo de Arnkel. La historia tiene lugar en la pequeña región de Snæfellsnes, al oeste de Islandia. Bólstaðr, la granja de Arnkel, es demasiado pequeña para sustentar sus ambiciones. Tiene los ojos puestos en Kársstaðir, la granja en el punto más interno del fiordo, con prados de heno y salmón. Los hijos de Thorbrand, que viven aquí, perciben la ambición territorial de Arnkel, que se confirma cuando reclama propiedades en el oeste y corta su ruta hacia Helgafell, un poco al norte donde vive su cacique Snorri y se lleva a cabo la asamblea.

El padre de Arnkel, Thorolf, había sido un vikingo que adquirió una gran cantidad de tierra en duelo. Más tarde vendió algunas de las tierras a Ulfar y Orlyg, dos esclavos liberados por Thorbrand. Un día, Ulfar se enfrenta a Thorolf por haberle robado algo de heno, pero el viejo vikingo planea matarlo incitando a su esclavo a prenderle fuego a su casa. Muerto de miedo, Ulfar se pone bajo la protección de Arnkel y le transfiere sus propiedades a cambio. Los hijos de Thorbrand no están tan entusiasmados con esto, ya que se consideran los dueños de su granja. La ley era vaga aquí, estableciendo que el antiguo propietario podía convertirse en heredero si el antiguo esclavo no podía administrar o no tenía hijos. Ulfar no tiene hijos, pero le va bastante bien.

Los hijos de Thorbrand no son jefes y, por lo tanto, tienen poco poder contra el viejo vikingo. En lugar de convocar a Arnkel directamente a la asamblea, los hermanos piden la ayuda del jefe al que son leales, Snorri. El padre de Arnkel también va a Snorri, furioso por la muerte de sus esclavos que intentaron matar a Ulfar. No obtuvo ninguna compensación por ellos y, como acto de venganza contra su hijo, Thorolf está dispuesto a negociar con el oponente de Arnkel. Snorri acepta favorecer a Thorolf en el procesamiento de su hijo después de que le transfiera una propiedad con un valioso bosque. En la corte, Snorri afirma que Arnkel debería haber matado a los esclavos cuando fue sorprendido quemando la casa de Ulfar, no después. Después del arbitraje, Arnkel le paga una pequeña suma a Snorri, lo que enfurece aún más a Thorolf cuando cedió su tierra por esto. Arnkel también está enojado porque su padre transfirió ilegalmente su propiedad legítima.

Para hacer valer su control sobre el bosque, un día mata a uno de los hombres de Snorri que fue sorprendido tomando leña. Mientras tanto, también se apodera de la propiedad de Orlyg, el hermano de Ulfar, esta vez ilegalmente. Se está acercando a la granja de Kársstaðir. Los humillados hijos de Thorbrand tampoco reciben la ayuda de Snorri esta vez, pero a él le preocupa cuando se le acusa de no poder mantener su autoridad si se queda quieto. Ulfar es asesinado por uno de los hombres de Thorolf, y Arnkel reclama alegremente su propiedad. Advierte a los hijos de Thorbrand que no lo desafíen. Snorri les recuerda a sus seguidores que, al final, la propiedad se encuentra entre su granja y la de Arnkel y caerá en manos del más fuerte. Arnkel se ha vuelto demasiado fuerte y terminó controlando casi todo el fiordo, pero los hijos de Thorbrand cuentan con el apoyo de otro cacique y esperan el momento perfecto para atacar cuando Arnkel solo tiene unos pocos esclavos para atender su heno.

La historia muestra los peligros que enfrentó un líder al dejar que sus ambiciones se desbordaran. Los agricultores pueden ser engañados, pero no ignorados. Los agricultores necesitaban saber cómo hacer valer sus derechos. Tanto el compromiso como la violencia eran opciones, pero con el apoyo adecuado y en el momento adecuado. Tales historias señalan la baja probabilidad de que los caciques disfruten de demasiado poder durante demasiado tiempo.


BREVE HISTORIA DE ISLANDIA

Las primeras personas que se establecieron en Islandia fueron probablemente los monjes irlandeses que llegaron en el siglo VIII. Sin embargo, en el siglo IX fueron expulsados ​​por los vikingos.

Según la tradición, el primer vikingo que descubrió Islandia fue un hombre llamado Naddoddur que se perdió mientras se dirigía a las Islas Feroe. Después de él, un sueco llamado Gardar Svavarsson circunnavegó Islandia alrededor del 860. Sin embargo, el primer intento vikingo de establecerse fue por un noruego llamado Floki Vilgeroarson. Aterrizó en el noroeste, pero un invierno severo mató a sus animales domésticos y navegó de regreso a Noruega. Sin embargo, le dio a la tierra su nombre. Lo llamó Islandia.

Luego, desde 874, muchos colonos llegaron a Islandia desde Noruega y las colonias vikingas en las Islas Británicas. Un noruego llamado Ingolfur Arnarson los dirigió. Navegó con su familia, esclavos y animales.

Cuando vio Islandia, Ingolfur dedicó sus postes de madera a sus dioses y luego los arrojó por la borda. Prometió establecerse en el lugar donde el mar los arrastró. Luego exploró Islandia. Cuando se encontraron los puestos en el suroeste de Islandia, Ingolfur y su familia se establecieron allí. Llamó al lugar Reykjavik, que significa Smokey Bay. Muchos otros vikingos lo siguieron a Islandia.

La tierra en Islandia era gratuita para quien la quisiera. Un hombre podría reclamar tanta tierra como podría encender fuegos en un día, mientras que una mujer podría reclamar tanta tierra como podría conducir una novilla en un día.

En Islandia había muy buenas zonas de pesca y la tierra se adaptaba bien a las ovejas. Muchos vikingos trajeron rebaños con ellos y pronto las ovejas se convirtieron en una importante industria islandesa. La población de Islandia se disparó. Alrededor de 930 había unas 60.000 personas viviendo en Islandia. n Al principio, los islandeses estaban gobernados por jefes llamados Godar, pero había algunas asambleas locales. Alrededor de 930, los islandeses crearon una asamblea para toda la isla llamada Althing.

ISLANDIA EN LA EDAD MEDIA

En el siglo XI, los noruegos se convirtieron al cristianismo. Los reyes noruegos enviaron misioneros a Islandia. Algunos islandeses aceptaron la nueva religión, pero muchos se opusieron amargamente. Finalmente, un hombre llamado Thorgeir, que era el portavoz legal del Althing, se dio cuenta de que era probable que hubiera una guerra civil entre los dos. También puede haber temido la intervención noruega. (¡Los noruegos estaban bastante preparados para "convertir" a la gente al cristianismo por la fuerza!). Persuadió a la gente para que aceptara un compromiso. El cristianismo se convirtió en la religión "oficial" de Islandia, pero a los paganos se les permitió adorar a sus dioses en privado.

Desde 1097, la gente en Islandia tuvo que pagar diezmos a la iglesia (en otras palabras, tuvieron que pagar una décima parte de sus productos). Como resultado, la iglesia se hizo rica y poderosa. Se erradicó el paganismo y se construyeron monasterios. Islandia recibió un obispo en 1056. En 1106 se creó otro obispado en Holar, en el norte.

Sin embargo, en 1152 la iglesia islandesa quedó bajo la autoridad de un arzobispo noruego. En aquellos días, la iglesia estaba estrechamente aliada con el estado. Cuando la iglesia islandesa se subordinó a la iglesia noruega, significó que la influencia del rey noruego en Islandia aumentó lentamente.

Mientras tanto, durante el siglo XII, las condiciones en Islandia se deterioraron. Puede que se deba en parte al pastoreo excesivo. Los bosques también fueron talados y el resultado fue la erosión del suelo. Sin madera para construir barcos, los islandeses dependían de los comerciantes noruegos. En ese momento se exportaban desde Islandia lana, pieles de animales, caballos y halcones. Se importaba madera, miel y malta para la elaboración de cerveza. Algunos islandeses comenzaron a acudir al rey de Noruega para proteger el comercio.

La Commonwealth de Islandia también se vio socavada por los enfrentamientos entre clanes. Luego, en 1218, un hombre llamado Snorri Sturlung visitó Noruega y acordó apoyar los intereses del rey noruego en Islandia. Regresó a casa en 1220. Mientras tanto, los obispos nacidos en Noruega también apoyaron las ambiciones del rey noruego de gobernar Islandia.

Sin embargo, la Commonwealth realmente terminó debido a la disputa entre clanes. Los islandeses querían desesperadamente la paz y finalmente se dieron cuenta de que la única forma de obtenerla era someterse al rey noruego.

Por lo tanto, en 1262, el Althing aceptó un acuerdo llamado Antiguo Pacto. Los islandeses acordaron pagar un impuesto sobre las telas de lana cada año. A cambio, el rey prometió mantener la ley y el orden en Islandia. También reemplazó al Godar con funcionarios reales. En 1280 se redactó una nueva constitución. El Althing continuó reuniéndose pero sus decisiones tuvieron que ser ratificadas por el rey. Además, el rey nombró a un gobernador y 12 alguaciles locales para gobernar. Mientras tanto, la esclavitud se extinguió lentamente en Islandia.

El siglo XIV y principios del XV fueron años problemáticos para Islandia. A principios del siglo XIV, el clima se enfrió. Luego, en 1402-03, la peste negra golpeó Islandia y la población quedó devastada.

Sin embargo, la prosperidad regresó en el siglo XV. En ese momento había una gran demanda en Europa de bacalao islandés e Islandia se enriqueció con la industria pesquera. Los islandeses comerciaron con los ingleses y con los alemanes. (En ese momento no había una sola nación alemana, pero los puertos alemanes se unieron en una federación llamada Liga Hanseática).

Mientras tanto, en 1397 Noruega se unió a Dinamarca. Posteriormente, Islandia fue gobernada por la corona danesa.

Durante el siglo XVI, Islandia, como el resto de Europa, fue sacudida por la reforma. Dinamarca se hizo protestante en la década de 1530 y en 1539 el rey danés ordenó a sus hombres confiscar las tierras de la iglesia en Islandia. Los obispos de Islandia resistieron y en 1541 el rey danés envió una expedición para imponer la conformidad. Skalholt recibió un nuevo obispo, pero el obispo de Holar, un hombre llamado Jon Aranson, siguió resistiendo. Era un poderoso cacique además de obispo y tenía soldados para luchar por él. También tuvo dos hijos, de su concubina, que lo apoyaron. En 1548 Aranson fue declarado proscrito. Luego, sus soldados capturaron al obispo protestante de Skalholt. Sin embargo, en 1550 fue derrotado. Aranson y sus dos hijos fueron ejecutados.

Posteriormente, la gente de Islandia aceptó gradualmente el protestantismo y en 1584 la Biblia se tradujo al islandés.

Sin embargo, durante el siglo XVII, los islandeses sufrieron dificultades. En 1602, el rey convirtió todo el comercio con Islandia en un monopolio de ciertos comerciantes en Copenhague, Malmo y Elsinore. En 1619 el monopolio se convirtió en sociedad anónima. El monopolio significó que los islandeses se vieron obligados a vender productos a la empresa a precios bajos y comprarles suministros a precios altos. Como resultado, la economía islandesa sufrió severamente.

Además, en 1661, el rey danés se convirtió en monarca absoluto. En 1662 los islandeses se vieron obligados a someterse a él. El Althing continuó encontrándose pero no tenía poder real. Se redujo a ser un tribunal. Peor aún en 1707-09 Islandia sufrió un brote de viruela que mató a una gran parte de la población.

A mediados del siglo XVIII, un hombre llamado Skuli Magnusson fue nombrado funcionario llamado fogd. Trató de mejorar la economía trayendo agricultores de Dinamarca y Noruega. También introdujo mejores barcos de pesca. También creó una industria de la lana en Reykjavik con tejedores alemanes. Finalmente, en 1787 se terminó el monopolio.

Sin embargo, en 1783, las consecuencias de las erupciones volcánicas causaron devastación en Islandia. En 1786, la población de Islandia era de solo 38.000 habitantes. Finalmente, en 1800 cerró el Althing. Un nuevo tribunal lo reemplazó. Se sentó en Reykjavik, que en ese momento era una pequeña comunidad de 300 personas.

ISLANDIA EN EL SIGLO XIX

En el siglo XIX, los lazos entre Islandia y Dinamarca se debilitaron. El nacionalismo fue una fuerza creciente en toda Europa, incluida Islandia. Un signo de este creciente nacionalismo fue la escritura de la canción O Guo vors lands en 1874.

En 1843, el rey danés decidió que Christian VIII retirara el Althing. Se reunió de nuevo en 1845. Sin embargo, tenía poco poder. Sin embargo, la opinión nacionalista en Islandia siguió creciendo y en 1874 Christian IX otorgó una nueva constitución. Sin embargo, bajo él, el Althing todavía tenía poderes limitados. Luego, en 1904, se abolió el cargo de gobernador y se otorgó a Islandia el autogobierno.

Mientras tanto, en 1854 se eliminaron las restantes restricciones al comercio. El comercio con Islandia se abrió a todas las naciones. Además, la pesca islandesa se volvió mucho más próspera a finales del siglo XIX. Hasta entonces, los pescadores solían utilizar botes de remos, pero a finales de siglo se habían cambiado a veleros con cubierta mucho más eficaces.

ISLANDIA EN EL SIGLO XX

Islandia comenzó a prosperar una vez más. La población aumentó (a pesar de la emigración a Canadá) y en 1911 se fundó la Universidad de Reykjavik.

En el siglo XX se aflojaron los lazos con Dinamarca. En 1904, a Islandia se le concedió la autonomía. Se abolió el cargo de gobernador. En cambio, Islandia ganó un ministro islandés responsable ante el Althing. Luego, en 1918, Islandia se convirtió en un estado soberano que compartía una monarquía con Dinamarca.

En 1915 se permitió votar a las mujeres islandesas. La primera mujer fue elegida para el Althing en 1922.

Luego, en mayo de 1940, Islandia fue ocupada por tropas británicas. En mayo de 1941 los estadounidenses los relevaron. Finalmente, en 1944, Islandia rompió todos los vínculos con Dinamarca y se disolvió la monarquía conjunta. n En 1947, el monte Hekla hizo erupción y causó mucha destrucción, pero Islandia se recuperó pronto y en 1949 se unió a la OTAN.

A finales del siglo XX, Islandia tuvo una serie de "guerras de bacalao" con Gran Bretaña. Islandia confió en su industria pesquera y se alarmó de que los británicos estuvieran sobreexplotando sus aguas. Las "guerras del bacalao" se "libraron" en 1959-1961, 1972 y 1975-1976.

En 1980 Vigdis Finnbogadottir fue elegido presidente de Islandia. Fue la primera mujer presidenta del mundo.

ISLANDIA EN EL SIGLO XXI

La gente de Islandia se beneficia del agua caliente natural, que se utiliza para calentar sus hogares. También se utiliza para calentar invernaderos.

En marzo de 2006, Estados Unidos anunció que retiraba sus fuerzas armadas de Islandia.

Luego, en 2008, Islandia sufrió una crisis económica cuando sus 3 principales bancos quebraron. En 2009, las manifestaciones llevaron a la caída del gobierno.

Hoy en día, Islandia todavía depende de la pesca, pero hay muchas ovejas, vacas y ponis islandeses. Islandia sufrió mucho en la crisis financiera mundial que comenzó en 2008 y el desempleo aumentó a más del 9%. Sin embargo, Islandia se recuperó pronto y cayó el desempleo.

Islandia es hoy un país próspero con un alto nivel de vida. En 2020, la población de Islandia era de 364.000.

Reikiavik


Estudios medievales islandeses

El programa de estudios medievales islandeses está diseñado para estudiantes internacionales que tienen una licenciatura con un componente medieval en al menos una de las siguientes áreas: literatura, historia, religión, lingüística, antropología, arqueología, historia del arte o folclore.

Próxima fecha límite de solicitud: 1 de febrero de 2022.

Sobre el programa

El programa de estudios medievales islandeses está diseñado para estudiantes internacionales que tienen una licenciatura con un componente medieval en al menos una de las siguientes áreas: literatura, historia, religión, lingüística, antropología, arqueología, historia del arte o folclore.

Tema principal

  • Vikingos
  • Islandia medieval
  • Antiguo mito nórdico
  • Religión
  • Historia
  • Literatura
  • Sagas

5. Islandia es el hogar del parlamento más antiguo del mundo.

La rica tradición democrática de Islandia & # x2019 se remonta a más de un milenio, desde la institución de una asamblea nacional, el Althingi, para gobernar la isla en 930. Durante dos semanas cada verano, los jefes de toda Islandia se reunieron en una asamblea al aire libre en las llanuras de Thingvellir. , un valle del rift al este de Reykjavik donde convergen las placas tectónicas de América del Norte y Eurasia. Todos los ciudadanos libres y respetuosos de la ley podían asistir mientras la asamblea aprobaba leyes y administraba justicia. El Althingi de 63 miembros ahora se reúne en Reykjavik, pero las reuniones ceremoniales, como la ceremonia que marca la independencia de Islandia el 17 de junio de 1944, todavía ocurren en Thingvellir.


Contenido

La prehistoria de Groenlandia es una historia de repetidas oleadas de inmigración paleo-esquimal desde las islas al norte del continente norteamericano. (Se cree que los pueblos de esas islas descienden, a su vez, de habitantes de Siberia que emigraron a Canadá hace miles de años). Debido a la lejanía y el clima de Groenlandia, la supervivencia allí era difícil. A lo largo de los siglos, una cultura sucedió a otra a medida que los grupos se extinguieron y fueron reemplazados por nuevos inmigrantes. La arqueología solo puede dar fechas aproximadas de las culturas que florecieron antes de la exploración nórdica de Groenlandia en el siglo X.

Las primeras culturas conocidas en Groenlandia son la cultura Saqqaq (2500-800 aC) [2] y la cultura Independencia I en el norte de Groenlandia (2400-1300 aC). Se cree que los practicantes de estas dos culturas descienden de grupos separados que llegaron a Groenlandia desde el norte de Canadá. [3] Alrededor del 800 aC, la llamada cultura Independencia II surgió en la región donde anteriormente había existido la cultura Independencia I. [4] Originalmente se pensó que la Independencia II fue sucedida por la cultura Dorset temprana (700 a. C.-1 d. C.), pero algunos artefactos de la Independencia II datan de tan recientemente como el siglo I a. C. Recent studies suggest that, in Greenland at least, the Dorset culture may be better understood as a continuation of Independence II culture the two cultures have therefore been designated "Greenlandic Dorset". [5] Artefacts associated with early Dorset culture in Greenland have been found as far north as Inglefield Land on the west coast and the Dove Bugt area on the east coast. [6]

After the Early Dorset culture disappeared by around AD 1, Greenland was apparently uninhabited until Late Dorset people settled on the Greenlandic side of the Nares strait around 700. [5] The late Dorset culture in the north of Greenland lasted until about 1300. [7] Meanwhile, the Norse arrived and settled in the southern part of the island in 980.

Europeans probably became aware of Greenland's existence in the early 10th century, after Gunnbjörn Ulfsson, while sailing from Norway to Iceland, was blown off course by a storm and sighted some islands off Greenland. During the 980s explorers led by Erik the Red set out from Iceland and reached the southwest coast of Greenland. They found the region uninhabited, and subsequently settled there. Erik named the island "Greenland" (Grœnland in Old Norse, Grænland in modern Icelandic, Grønland in modern Danish and Norwegian). Ambos Book of Icelanders (Íslendingabók, a medieval account of Icelandic history from the 12th century onward) and the Saga of Eric the Red (Eiríks saga rauða, a medieval account of his life and of the Norse settlement of Greenland) state that Erik said that it would encourage people to go there that the land had a good name." [8] [ failed verification – see discussion] [9]

According to the sagas, the Icelanders had exiled Erik the Red for three years for committing murder, [10] c. 982. He sailed to Greenland, where he explored the coastline and claimed certain regions as his own. He then returned to Iceland to persuade people to join him in establishing a settlement on Greenland. The Icelandic sagas say that 25 ships left Iceland with Erik the Red in 985, and that only 14 of them arrived safely in Greenland. [11] Radiocarbon dating of remains at the first settlement at Brattahlid (now Qassiarsuk) have approximately confirmed this timeline, yielding a date of about 1000. According to the sagas, in the year 1000 Erik's son, Leif Eirikson, left the settlement to explore the regions around Vinland, which historians generally assume to have been located in present-day Newfoundland.

The Norse established settlements along Greenland's south-western fjords. It is possible that the bottom lands of the southern fjords at that time were covered by highgrown shrub and surrounded by hills covered with grass and brush (as the Qinngua Valley currently is), but this hasn't been determined yet. [12] If the presumption is true then the Norse probably cleared the landscape by felling trees to use as building material and as fuel, and by allowing their sheep and goats to graze there in both summer and winter. Any resultant soil erosion could have become an important factor in the demise of the colonies, as the land was stripped of its natural cover.

The Norse settled in three separate locations in south-western Greenland: the larger Eastern Settlement, the smaller Western Settlement, and the still smaller Middle Settlement (often considered part of the Eastern one). Estimates put the combined population of the settlements at their height between 2,000 and 10,000, with recent estimates [13] trending toward the lower figure. Archeologists have identified the ruins of approximately 620 farms: 500 in the Eastern Settlement, 95 in the Western Settlement, and 20 in the Middle Settlement.

The economy of the Norse Greenlanders depended on a combination of pastoral farming with hunting and some fishing. Farmers kept cattle, sheep and goats - shipped into the island - for their milk, cheese and butter, while most of the consumed meat came from hunted caribou and seals. Both individual farmers and groups of farmers organised summer trips to the more northerly Disko Bay area, where they hunted walruses, narwhals and polar bears for their skins, hides and ivory. Besides their use in making garments and shoes, these resources also functioned as a form of currency, as well as providing the most important export commodities. [14]

The Greenland settlements carried on a trade with Europe in ivory from walrus tusks, as well as exporting rope, sheep, seals, wool and cattle hides (according to one 13th-century account). [ cita necesaria ] They depended on Iceland and Norway for iron tools, wood (especially for boat building, although they may also have obtained wood from coastal Labrador - Markland), supplemental foodstuffs, and religious and social contacts. For a time, trade ships from Iceland and Norway traveled to Greenland every year and would sometimes overwinter in Greenland. Beginning in the late-13th century, laws required all ships from Greenland to sail directly to Norway. The climate became increasingly colder in the 14th and 15th centuries, during the period of colder weather known as the Little Ice Age.

In 1126 the Roman Catholic Church founded a diocese at Garðar (now Igaliku). It was subject to the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros (now Trondheim) at least five churches in Norse Greenland are known from archeological remains. In 1261 the population accepted the overlordship of the King of Norway, although it continued to have its own law. In 1380 the Norwegian kingdom entered into a personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark.

After initially thriving, the Norse settlements in Greenland declined in the 14th century. The Norse abandoned the Western Settlement around 1350. In 1378 there was no longer a bishop at Garðar. In 1379 Inuit attacked the Eastern Settlement, killed 18 men and captured two boys and a woman. [15] In 1402–1404 the Black Death hit Iceland for the first time and killed approximately half the population there - but there is no evidence that it reached Greenland. [16] The last written record of the Norse Greenlanders documents a marriage in 1408 at Hvalsey Church, whose ruins are the best-preserved of the Norse buildings of that period.

After 1408 few written records mention the settlers. Correspondence between the Pope and the Biskop Bertold af Garde dates from the same year. [17] The Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus seems to have visited Greenland in 1420, according to documents written by Nicolas Germanus and Henricus Martellus, who had access to original cartographic notes and a map by Clavus. In the late 20th century the Danish scholars Bjönbo and Petersen found two mathematical manuscripts containing the second chart of the Claudius Clavus map from his journey to Greenland (where he himself mapped the area). [18]

In a letter dated 1448 from Rome, Pope Nicholas V instructed the bishops of Skálholt and Hólar (the two Icelandic episcopal sees) to provide the inhabitants of Greenland with priests and a bishop, the latter of which they had not had in the 30 years since a purported attack by "heathens" who destroyed most of the churches and took the population prisoner. [19] It is probable that the Eastern Settlement was defunct by the middle of the 15th century, although no exact date has been established. A European ship that landed in the former Eastern Settlement in the 1540s found the corpse of a Norse man there, [20] which may be the last mention of a Norse individual from the settlement. [21]

There are many theories as to why the Norse settlements in Greenland collapsed after surviving for some 450–500 years (985 to 1450–1500). Among the factors that have been suggested as contributing to the demise of the Greenland colony are: [22] [23]

  • Cumulative environmental damage
  • Gradual climate change
  • Conflicts with Inuit peoples
  • Loss of contact and support from Europe
  • Cultural conservatism and failure to adapt to an increasingly harsh natural environment
  • Opening of opportunities elsewhere after plague had left many farmsteads abandoned in Iceland and Norway
  • Declining value of ivory in Europe (due to the influx of ivory from Russian walrus and African elephants), forcing hunters to overkill the walrus populations and endanger their own survival [24]

Numerous studies have tested these hypotheses and some have led to significant discoveries. En The Frozen Echo, Kirsten Seaver contests some of the more generally accepted theories about the demise of the Greenland colony, and asserts that the colony, towards the end, was healthier than Diamond and others have thought. Seaver believes that the Greenlanders cannot have starved to death, but rather may have been wiped out by Inuit or unrecorded European attacks, or they may have abandoned the colony for Iceland or Vinland. However, the physical evidence from archeological studies of the ancient farm sites does not show evidence of attack. [ cita necesaria ] The paucity of personal belongings at these sites is typical of North Atlantic Norse sites that were abandoned in an orderly fashion, with any useful items being deliberately removed but to others it suggests a gradual but devastating impoverishment. Middens at these sites do show an increasingly impoverished diet for humans and livestock. Else Roesdahl argues that declining ivory prices in Europe due to the influx of Russian and African ivory adversely affected the Norse settlements in Greenland, which depended largely on the export of walrus ivory to Europe. [25]

Greenland was always colder in winter than Iceland and Norway, and its terrain less hospitable to agriculture. Erosion of the soil was a danger from the beginning, one that the Greenland settlements may not have recognized until it was too late. For an extended time, nonetheless, the relatively warm West Greenland current flowing northwards along the southwestern coast of Greenland made it feasible for the Norse to farm much as their relatives did in Iceland or northern Norway. Palynologists' tests on pollen counts and fossilized plants prove that the Greenlanders must have struggled with soil erosion and deforestation. [15] A Norse farm in the Vatnahverfi district, excavated in the 1950s, had been buried in layers of drifting sand up to 10 feet deep. As the unsuitability of the land for agriculture became more and more patent, the Greenlanders resorted first to pastoralism and then to hunting for their food. [15] But they never learned to use the hunting techniques of the Inuit, one being a farming culture, the other living on hunting in more northern areas with pack ice. [15]

To investigate the possibility of climatic cooling, scientists drilled into the Greenland ice cap to obtain core samples, which suggested that the Medieval Warm Period had caused a relatively milder climate in Greenland, lasting from roughly 800 to 1200. However, from 1300 or so the climate began to cool. By 1420, the "Little Ice Age" had reached intense levels in Greenland. [26] Excavations of middens from the Norse farms in both Greenland and Iceland show the shift from the bones of cows and pigs to those of sheep and goats. As the winters lengthened, and the springs and summers shortened, there must have been less and less time for Greenlanders to grow hay. A study of North Atlantic seasonal temperature variability showed a significant decrease in maximum summer temperatures beginning in the late 13th century to early 14th century—as much as 6-8 °C lower than modern summer temperatures. [27] The study also found that the lowest winter temperatures of the last 2,000 years occurred in the late 14th century and early 15th century. By the mid-14th century deposits from a chieftain's farm showed a large number of cattle and caribou remains, whereas, a poorer farm only several kilometers away had no trace of domestic animal remains, only seal. Bone samples from Greenland Norse cemeteries confirm that the typical Greenlander diet had increased by this time from 20% sea animals to 80%. [28]

Although Greenland seems to have been uninhabited at the time of initial Norse settlement, the Thule people migrated south and finally came into contact with the Norse in the 12th century. There are limited sources showing the two cultures interacting however, scholars know that the Norse referred to the Inuit (and Vinland natives) as skræling. los Icelandic Annals are among the few existing sources that confirm contact between the Norse and the Inuit. They report an instance of hostility initiated by the Inuit against the Norse, leaving eighteen Greenlanders dead and two boys carried into slavery. [29] Archaeological evidence seems to show that the Inuit traded with the Norse. On the other hand, the evidence shows many Norse artefacts at Inuit sites throughout Greenland and on the Canadian Arctic islands but very few Inuit artefacts in the Norse settlements. This may indicate either European indifference—an instance of cultural resistance to Inuit crafts among them—or perhaps hostile raiding by the Inuit. It is also quite possible that the Norse were trading for perishable items such as meat and furs and had little interest in other Inuit items, much as later Europeans who traded with Native Americans.

The Norse never learned the Inuit techniques of kayak navigation or ring seal hunting. Archaeological evidence plainly establishes that by 1300 or so the Inuit had successfully expanded their winter settlements as close to the Europeans as the outer fjords of the Western Settlement. By 1350, the Norse had completely deserted their Western Settlement. [30] The Inuit, being a hunting society, may have hunted the Norse livestock, forcing the Norse into conflict or abandonment of their settlements. [ cita necesaria ]

In mild weather conditions, a ship could make the 900-mile (1400 kilometers) trip from Iceland to Eastern Settlement within a couple of weeks. Greenlanders had to keep in contact with Iceland and Norway in order to trade. Little is known about any distinctive shipbuilding techniques among the Greenlanders. Greenland lacks a supply of lumber, so was completely dependent on Icelandic merchants or, possibly, logging expeditions to the Canadian coast. [ cita necesaria ]

The sagas mention Icelanders traveling to Greenland to trade. [31] Settlement chieftains and large farm owners controlled this trade. Chieftains would trade with the foreign ships and then disperse the goods by trading with the surrounding farmers. [32] The Greenlanders' main commodity was the walrus tusk, [22] which was used primarily in Europe as a substitute for elephant ivory for art décor, whose trade had been blocked by conflict with the Islamic world. Professor Gudmundsson suggests a very valuable narwhal tusk trade, through a smuggling route between western Iceland and the Orkney islands. [ cita necesaria ]

It has been argued that the royal Norwegian monopoly on shipping contributed to the end of trade and contact. However, Christianity and European customs continued to hold sway among the Greenlanders for the greater part of the 14th and 15th centuries. In 1921, a Danish historian, Paul Norland, found human remains from the Eastern Settlement in the Herjolfsnes church courtyard. The bodies were dressed in 15th century medieval clothing with no indications of malnutrition or inbreeding. Most had crucifixes around their necks with their arms crossed as in a stance of prayer. Roman papal records report that the Greenlanders were excused from paying their tithes in 1345 because the colony was suffering from poverty. [33] The last reported ship to reach Greenland was a private ship that was "blown off course", reaching Greenland in 1406, and departing in 1410 with the last news of Greenland: the burning at the stake of a condemned male witch, the insanity and death of the woman this witch was accused of attempting to seduce through witchcraft, and the marriage of the ship's captain, Thorsteinn Ólafsson, to another Icelander, Sigríður Björnsdóttir. [34] However, there are some suggestions of much later unreported voyages from Europe to Greenland, possibly as late as the 1480s. [35] In the 1540s, [11] a ship drifted off-course to Greenland and discovered the body of a dead man lying face down who demonstrated cultural traits of both Norse and Inuit. An Icelandic crew member of the ship wrote: "He had a hood on his head, well sewn, and clothes from both homespun and sealskin. At his side lay a carving knife bent and worn down by whetting. This knife they took with them for display." [36]

According to a 2009 study, "there is no evidence for perceptible contact between Iceland and Greenland after the mid fifteenth century. It is clear that neither Danish and Norwegian nor Icelandic public functionaries were aware that the Norse Greenland colony had ceased to exist. Around 1514, the Norwegian archbishop Erik Valkendorf (Danish by birth, and still loyal to Christian II) planned an expedition to Greenland, which he believed to be part of a continuous northern landmass leading to the New World with all its wealth, and which he fully expected still to have a Norse population, whose members could be pressed anew to the bosom of church and crown after an interval of well over a hundred years. Presumably, the archbishop had better archives at his disposal than most people, and yet he had not heard that the Greenlanders were gone." [25]

One intriguing fact is that very few fish remains are found among their middens. This has led to much speculation and argument. Most archaeologists reject any decisive judgment based on this one fact, however, as fish bones decompose more quickly than other remains, and may have been disposed of in a different manner. Isotope analysis of the bones of inhabitants shows that marine food sources supplied more and more of the diet of the Norse Greenlanders, making up between 50% and 80% of their diet by the 14th century. [37]

One Inuit story recorded in the 18th century tells that raiding expeditions by European ships over the course of three years destroyed the settlement, after which many of the Norse sailed away south and the Inuit took in some of the remaining women and children before the final attack. [11]

The Late Dorset culture inhabited Greenland until the early fourteenth century. [38] This culture was primarily located in the northwest of Greenland, far from the Norse who lived around the southern coasts. Archaeological evidence points to this culture predating the Norse or Thule settlements. [39] In the region of this culture, there is archaeological evidence of gathering sites for around four to thirty families, living together for a short time during their movement cycle.

Around AD 1300–1400, the Thule arrived from the west settling in the Northeast areas of Greenland. [40] These people, the ancestors of the modern Greenland Inuit, [39] [41] were flexible and engaged in the hunting of almost all animals on land and in the ocean, including walrus, narwhal, and seal. [42] [43] The Thule adapted well to the environment of Greenland, as archaeological evidence indicates that the Thule were not using all parts of hunting kills, unlike other arctic groups, meaning they were able to waste more resources due to either surplus or well adapted behaviors. [42]

The nature of the contacts between the Dorset and Norse cultures is not clear, but may have included trade elements. The level of contact is currently the subject of widespread debate, possibly including Norse trade with Thule or Dorsets in Canada.

Most of the old Norse records concerning Greenland were removed from Trondheim to Copenhagen in 1664 and subsequently lost, probably in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728. [44] The precise date of rediscovery is uncertain because south-drifting icebergs during the Little Ice Age long made the eastern coast unreachable. This led to general confusion between Baffin Island, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, as seen, for example, in the difficulty locating the Frobisher "Strait", which was not confirmed to be a bay until 1861. Nonetheless, interest in discovering a Northwest Passage to Asia led to repeated expeditions in the area, though none were successful until Roald Amundsen in 1906 and even that success involved his being iced in for two years. Christian I of Denmark purportedly sent an expedition to the region under Pothorst and Pining to Greenland in 1472 or 1473 Henry VII of England sent another under Cabot in 1497 and 1498 Manuel I of Portugal sent a third under Corte-Real in 1500 and 1501. It had certainly been generally charted by the 1502 Cantino map, which includes the southern coastline. [44] The island was "rediscovered" yet again by Martin Frobisher in 1578, prompting King Frederick II of Denmark to outfit a new expedition of his own the next year under the Englishman James Alday this proved a costly failure. [44] The influence of English and Dutch whalers became so pronounced that for a time the western shore of the island itself became known as "Davis Strait" (Dutch: Straat Davis) after John Davis's 1585 and 1586 expeditions, which charted the western coast as far north as Disko Bay. [45]

Meanwhile, following Sweden's exit from the Kalmar Union, the remaining states in the personal union were reorganized into Denmark-Norway in 1536. In protest against foreign involvement in the region, the Greenlandic polar bear was included in the state's coat of arms in the 1660s (it was removed in 1958 but remains part of the royal coat of arms). In the second half of the 17th century Dutch, German, French, Basque, and Dano-Norwegian ships hunted bowhead whales in the pack ice off the east coast of Greenland, regularly coming to shore to trade and replenish drinking water. Foreign trade was later forbidden by Danish monopoly merchants.

From 1711 to 1721, [46] the Norwegian cleric Hans Egede petitioned King Frederick IV of Denmark for funding to travel to Greenland and re-establish contact with the Norse settlers there. Presumably, such settlers would still be Catholic or even pagan and he desired to establish a mission among them to spread the Reformation. [47] Frederick permitted Egede and some Norwegian merchants to establish the Bergen Greenland Company to revive trade with the island but refused to grant them a monopoly over it for fear of antagonizing Dutch whalers in the area. [48] The Royal Mission College assumed authority over the mission and provided the company with a small stipend. Egede found but misidentified the ruins of the Norse colony, went bankrupt amid repeated attacks by the Dutch, and found lasting conversion of the migrant Inuit exceedingly difficult. An attempt to found a royal colony under Major Claus Paarss established the settlement of Godthåb ("Good Hope") in 1728, but became a costly debacle which saw most of the soldiers mutiny [47] and the settlers killed by scurvy. [49] Two child converts sent to Copenhagen for the coronation of Christian VI returned in 1733 with smallpox, devastating the island. The same ship that returned them, however, also brought the first Moravian missionaries, who in time would convert a former angekok (Inuit shaman), experience a revival at their mission of New Herrnhut, and establish a string of mission houses along the southwest coast. Around the same time, the merchant Jacob Severin took over administration of the colony and its trade, and having secured a large royal stipend and full monopoly from the king, successfully repulsed the Dutch in a series of skirmishes in 1738 and 1739. Egede himself quit the colony on the death of his wife, leaving the Lutheran mission to his son Poul. Both of them had studied the Kalaallisut language extensively and published works on it as well, Poul and some of the other clergy sent by the Mission College, such as Otto Fabricius, began wide-ranging study of Greenland's flora, fauna, and meteorology. However, though kale, lettuce, and other herbs were successfully introduced, repeated attempts to cultivate wheat or clover failed throughout Greenland, limiting the ability to raise European livestock. [46]

As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden at the 1814 Treaty of Kiel. The colonies, including Greenland, remained in Danish possession. The 19th century saw increased interest in the region on the part of polar explorers and scientists like William Scoresby and Greenland-born Knud Rasmussen. At the same time, the colonial elements of the earlier trade-oriented Danish presence in Greenland expanded. In 1861, the first Greenlandic-language journal was founded. Danish law still applied only to the Danish settlers, though. At the turn of the 19th century, the northern part of Greenland was still sparsely populated only scattered hunting inhabitants were found there. [50] During that century, however, Inuit families immigrated from British North America to settle in these areas. The last group from what later became Canada arrived in 1864. During the same time, the northeastern part of the coast became depopulated following the violent 1783 Lakagígar eruption in Iceland.

Democratic elections for the district assemblies of Greenland were held for the first time in 1862–1863, although no assembly for the land as a whole was allowed. In 1888, a party of six led by Fridtjof Nansen accomplished the first land crossing of Greenland. The men took 41 days to make the crossing on skis, at approximately 64°N latitude. [51] In 1911, two Landstings were introduced, one for northern Greenland and one for southern Greenland, not to be finally merged until 1951. All this time, most decisions were made in Copenhagen, where the Greenlanders had no representation. Towards the end of the 19th century, traders criticized the Danish trade monopoly. It was argued that it kept the natives in non-profitable ways of life, holding back the potentially large fishing industry. Many Greenlanders however were satisfied with the status quo, as they felt the monopoly would secure the future of commercial whaling. It probably did not help that the only contact the local population had with the outside world was with Danish settlers. Nonetheless, the Danes gradually moved over their investments to the fishing industry.

By 1911, the population was about 14,000, scattered along the southern shores. They were nearly all Christian, thanks to the missionary efforts of Moravians and especially Hans Egede (1686–1758), a Lutheran missionary called "the Apostle of Greenland." He founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk. His grandson Hans Egede Saabye (1746–1817) continued the missionary activities. [52]

At the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, American explorers, including Robert Peary, explored the northern sections of Greenland, which up to that time had been a mystery and were often shown on maps as extending over the North Pole. Peary discovered that Greenland's northern coast in fact stopped well short of the pole. These discoveries were considered to be the basis of an American territorial claim in the area. But after the United States purchased the Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917, it agreed to relinquish all claims on Greenland.

After Norway regained full independence in 1905, it argued that Danish claims to Greenland were invalid since the island had been a Norwegian possession prior to 1815. In 1931, Norwegian meteorologist Hallvard Devold occupied uninhabited eastern Greenland, on his own initiative. After the fact, the occupation was supported by the Norwegian government, who claimed the area as Erik the Red's Land. Two years later, the Permanent Court of International Justice ruled in favor of Denmark.

Segunda Guerra Mundial Editar

During World War II, when Nazi Germany extended its war operations to Greenland, Henrik Kauffmann, the Danish Minister to the United States — who had already refused to recognize the German occupation of Denmark — signed a treaty with the United States on April 9, 1941, granting permission to establish stations in Greenland. [53] Kauffmann did this without the knowledge of the Danish government, and consequently "the Danish government accused him of high treason, fired him and told him to come home immediately – none of which had any result". [53] Because it was difficult for the Danish government to govern the island during the war, and because of successful exports, especially of cryolite, Greenland came to enjoy a rather independent status. Its supplies were guaranteed by the United States.

One Dane was killed in combat with Germans in Greenland. [53]

Guerra Fría Editar

During the Cold War, Greenland had a strategic importance, controlling parts of the passage between the Soviet Union's Arctic Ocean harbours and the Atlantic Ocean, as well as being a good base for observing any use of intercontinental ballistic missiles, typically planned to pass over the Arctic. In the first proposed United States purchase of Greenland, the country offered to buy it for $100,000,000 but Denmark did not agree to sell. [54] [55] In 1951, the Kauffman treaty was replaced by another one. [ cita necesaria ] The Thule Air Base in the northwest was made permanent. In 1953, some Inuit families were forced by Denmark to move from their homes to provide space for extension of the base. For this reason, the base has been a source of friction between the Danish government and the Greenlandic people. In the 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash of January 21, 1968, four hydrogen bombs contaminated the area with radioactive debris. Although most of the contaminated ice was cleaned up, one of the bombs was not accounted for. A 1995 Danish parliamentary scandal, dubbed Thulegate, highlighted that nuclear weapons were routinely present in Greenland's airspace in the years leading up to the accident, and that Denmark had tacitly given the go-ahead for this activity despite its official nuclear free policy.

The United States upgraded the Ballistic Missile Early Warning System to a phased array radar. [56] Opponents argue that the system presents a threat to the local population, as it would be targeted in the event of nuclear war.

The American presence in Greenland brought Sears catalogs, from which Greenlanders and Danes purchased modern appliances and other products by mail. [57] From 1948 to 1950, the Greenland Commission studied the conditions on the island, seeking to address its isolation, unequal laws, and economic stagnation. In the end, the Royal Greenland Trading Department's monopolies were finally removed. In 1953, Greenland was raised from the status of colony to that of an autonomous province or constituent country of the Danish Realm. Greenland was also assigned its own Danish county. Despite its small population, it was provided nominal representation in the Danish Folketing.

A plantation of exotic arctic trees was created in 1954 near Narsarsuaq. [58]

Denmark also began a number of reforms aimed at urbanizing the Greenlanders, principally to replace their dependence on (then) dwindling seal populations and provide workers for the (then) swelling cod fisheries, but also to provide improved social services such as health care, education, and transportation. These well-meaning reforms have led to a number of problems, particularly modern unemployment and the infamous Blok P housing project. The attempt to introduce European-style urban housing suffered from such inattention to local detail that Inuit could not fit through the doors in their winter clothing and fire escapes were constantly blocked by fishing gear too bulky to fit into the cramped apartments. [59] Television broadcasts began in 1982. The collapse of the cod fisheries and mines in the late 1980s and early 1990s greatly damaged the economy, which now principally depends on Danish aid and cold-water shrimp exports. Large sectors of the economy remain controlled by state-owned corporations, with Air Greenland and the Arctic Umiaq ferry heavily subsidized to provide access to remote settlements. The major airport remains the former US air base at Kangerlussuaq well north of Nuuk, with the capital unable to accept international flights on its own, owing to concerns about expense and noise pollution.

Greenland's minimal representation in the Folketing meant that despite 70.3% of Greenlanders rejecting entry into the European Common Market (EEC), it was pulled in along with Denmark in 1973. Fears that the customs union would allow foreign firms to compete and overfish its waters were quickly realized and the local parties began to push strongly for increased autonomy. The Folketing approved devolution in 1978 and the next year enacted home rule under a local Landsting. On 23 February 1982, a bare majority (53%) of Greenland's population voted to leave the EEC, a process which lasted until 1985. This resulted in The Greenland Treaty of 1985. [60]

Greenland Home Rule has become increasingly Greenlandized, rejecting Danish and avoiding regional dialects to standardize the country under the language and culture of the Kalaallit (West Greenland Inuit). The capital Godthåb was renamed Nuuk in 1979 a local flag was adopted in 1985 the Danish KGH became the locally administered Kalaallit Niuerfiat (now KNI A/S) in 1986. Following a successful referendum on self-government in 2008, the local parliament's powers were expanded and Danish was removed as an official language in 2009.

International relations are now largely, but not entirely, also left to the discretion of the home rule government. As part of the treaty controlling Greenland's exit of the EEC, Greenland was declared a "special case" with access to the EEC market as a constituent country of Denmark, which remains a member. [60] Greenland is also a member of several small organizations [ ¿cuales? ] along with Iceland, the Faroes, and the Inuit populations of Canada and Russia. [ cita necesaria ] It was one of the founders of the environmental Arctic Council in 1996. The US military bases on the island remain a major issue, with some politicians pushing for renegotiation of the 1951 US–Denmark treaty by the Home Rule government. The 1999–2003 Commission on Self-Governance even proposed that Greenland should aim at Thule base's removal from American authority and operation under the aegis of the United Nations. [61]


Icelandic women in Politics

Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Rob C. Croes. No edits made.

Vigdís Finnbogadóttir held the position of President of Iceland for sixteen years, making her the longest serving female president from any country to date. A divorced single mother, her presidency took the world by surprise in the less liberally minded 1980s, with international headlines reading quite simply "WOMAN ELECTED PRESIDENT."

Though she was initially reluctant to run, Vigdis was soon convinced by her fellow countrymen to prove women could successfully run a campaign and win. Despite the fact she achieved only a narrow margin of a victory, her popularity quickly soared, securing her three later re-elections.

Adored by Icelanders the country over, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir is to this day very well aware that her victory came off the back of the 1975 Women's Day Off. Throughout her tenure as a President, she vigorously pursued the development of girl's education, coined the expression "never let the woman down" and acted a role model for young Icelandic women.

Outside of the Women's movement, she was a keen spokesperson for environmental issues and was instrumental in setting up the Reykjavik Summit, a crucial meeting held between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev in the 1980s that helped to bring a close to the Cold War.

Photo from Wikimedia, Creative Commons, by Nationaal Archief . No edits made.

Vigdís Finnbogadóttir has not been the only woman to push the boundaries of leadership in Icelandic politics.

In 2009, Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir was elected as Iceland&rsquos first female prime minister and, coincidentally, the world&rsquos first openly gay head of state. She was instrumental in leading the charge against sexual violence and rape. Guðrún Jónsdóttir of Stígamót, a Reykjavik organisation campaigning against sexual violence, said of the prime minister, "Johanna is a great feminist in that she challenges the men in her party and refuses to let them oppress her."

Kolbrún Halldórsdóttir, a former MP with the Left-Green Movement, pushed to end stripping and lap dancing based on feminist ideals, rather than religious ones. At the time, she firmly told the national press, "It is not acceptable that women or people in general are a product to be sold."

As of 2010, strip clubs, prostitution and profiting off the nudity of employees have all been made illegal. This new law effectively meant that authorities were able to close in and shut down the major institutions facilitating human trafficking and the sex trade.


Iceland Declares Independence

The Icelandic constitutional referendum was held in 1944 as the closing chapters of the war began to materialise. Given the fact that Denmark was still occupied by Nazi Germany in 1944, many Danes felt it an inappropriate time to hold such an election, though the move was congratulated by King Christian X of Denmark after the Icelandic population voted 98% in favour for independence.

According to stipulations in the 1918 Danish&ndashIcelandic Act of Union, the two countries would maintain strong ties, with Iceland still falling under the territorial dominion of the Danish Monarchy. This subjection to the monarchy was later abolished in the same year, and full autonomy was granted, with Sveinn Björnsson serving as the first President of the Republic of Iceland.

Gaining independence meant that Iceland had to reinvent its position on the world stage as culturally separate from the Danish, as well as their relationship with the rest of mainland Europe.

For example, the Icelandic Flag was ratified by law in 1944 and the inherent values of the Icelandic national psyche&mdashi.e. religious expression, the preservation of their language&mdashwere collectively agreed upon as the founding principles of Iceland as an independent nation.

This was for a number of reasons, least of which being that the Sagas are resoundingly unique in the pantheon of worldwide medieval literature. They are neither myth, nor epic, nor romances or folktales, but stories of vengeance, wealth, power and love.

Jón Sigurðsson ("Jón forseti") bravely led a group of Icelandic intellectuals towards an independence movement, recreating an autonomous Icelandic government. He is credited as the founder of modern-day Iceland and is often referred to as President Jón by Icelanders, even though he was never officially president of Iceland.


Jesse L. Byock

Byock begins with a brief survey of the historical and legal sources. Turning to the Icelandic sagas, he takes a position in the historiographical debate over their value as sources, arguing for their importance in understanding the economic and social background. He then presents an outline of the history of the Free State, from settlement and the creation of the legal system, through gradual evolution, until Iceland came under the control of the Norwegian crown in 1262-1264. Iceland adopted Christianity in 1000, but it did so through negotiation rather than war or conflict and, with Iceland distant from central Church authority, the new religion was adapted to fit existing structures.

Byock's primary focus is on governance and in particular the relationships between farmers and gothar ("chieftains"). Gothar had few special sources of wealth — some very limited taxes and a chance at price-setting for imports tithes and trade were open to all farmers. The power of the gothar rested on their status as legal advocates and a gothorth was not a territorial or hereditary chieftaincy but rather "a professional vocation with entrepreneurial overtones". Relationships between gothar and ordinary farmers were flexible, with farmers free to change allegiances and subject to only limited obligations, and the binding forces of society were client-advocate relationships, real and fictive kinship relationships, and formalised ties of reciprocal friendship.

Three chapters present cases from the family and Sturlunga sagas, illustrating how this system of governance actually worked in practice. Conflicts over property and inheritances illustrate relationships between farmers and the way in which gothar could use their status as advocates to obtain concessions. Arnkell's fate in Eyrbyggja saga highlights the limitations on the ambition of gothar and some of the "checks and balances" of the system. And the struggle between Brod-Helgi and Geitir in Vapnfirthinga saga shows how broad networks of support were needed to safely carry out direct action.


How is Iceland governed?

Iceland is a constitutional republic with a multi-party system. The head of state is the President. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Iceland is arguably the world's oldest parliamentary democracy, with the Parliament, the Althingi, established in 930. Legislative power is vested in both the Parliament and the President. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Every fourth year the electorate chooses, by secret ballot, 63 representatives to sit in Althingi. Anyone who is eligible to vote, with the exception of the President and judges of the Supreme Court, can stand for parliament. Following each election, the President gives a leader of a political party the authority to form a cabinet, usually beginning with the leader of the largest party. If unsuccessful the President will ask another political party leader to form a government.

A cabinet of ministers stays in power until the next general election or a new government is formed. The ministers sit in Althingi, but only those elected have the right to vote in parliament.

The president is elected by direct popular vote for a term of four years, with no term limit.

Judicial power lies with the Supreme Court, Court of Appeal and the district courts.


Traditional forest use and forest decline

The birchwoods were important as a source of fuel wood, building material and livestock fodder, but the most important forest product was charcoal, needed to smelt iron and make iron tools. The need for charcoal was finally alleviated in the latter half of the 19th century, when steel tools and farming implements began to be imported. However, wood was used for fuel until as late as the 1940s, both for cooking and heating the new wood frame and concrete houses, which were colder than the sod homes that Icelanders lived in before.

However, the main use of the woodland remnants still found in Iceland in the 19th and 20th centuries was for livestock (mostly sheep) grazing and fodder production. Increased cultivation of hay fields during the mid 20th century led to a reduction in winter browsing of woodlands but summer browsing pressure continue to increase. It wasn't until the late 1970s that overproduction finally led to a quota system for sheep and dairy production and a reduction in sheep numbers.

The extent of Icelandic birchwoods probably reached a post-glacial minimum of less than 1% of total land area around the mid 20th century, perhaps even less than 0.5%. By that time, several woodland remnants had been protected from grazing and birch had started to spread within the enclosures. Afforestation by planting had also started. It is difficult to state exactly when net deforestation changed to net afforestation but it was probably some time between 1950 and 1980.

Today, birchwoods are not economically important as a source of wood or fodder, although over 200 tonnes of fireplace logs are produced annually. Again, after a 70 year hiatus, birch is being used as cooking fuel as well, this time in restaurants for baking pizzas. Some birch forests are popular recreation areas and they are recognised as being important form an ecological perspective as remnants of an ecosystem that once covered much of Iceland. They also act as sources of forest-related plants, animals and fungi to colonise afforestation areas.


Ver el vídeo: 6. Easter Island - Where Giants Walked (Julio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Stedeman

    De acuerdo, muy divertida opinión.

  2. Kesegowaase

    ¡Sólo! ¡Él!

  3. Jela

    La frase exacta

  4. Kigagore

    No ha entendido todo.

  5. Nur Al Din

    el mensaje incomparable, por favor :)



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